Yes, the pathogen SARS-CoV-2 is very contagious and the Covid-19 disease can lead to prolonged, severe and fatal courses in all age groups. In addition, some of those who contract the disease are left with physical or psychological sequelae or symptoms. Only if a large proportion of people are vaccinated can we end the pandemic and return to a life of close contact with others.
Natürlich ist eine Impfung ein medizinischer Eingriff, und wie bei allen Eingriffen muss man Nutzen und Schaden abwägen. Grundsätzlich aber gilt: Der Nutzen der Impfung ist hoch, denn sie senkt das Risiko einer Covid-19-Erkrankung um über 60 bis zu 95 Prozent.
The side effects known so far, for example
- Pain at the injection site,
- Headache or muscle pain
are low. Very rarely, strong allergic reactions occur; allergy sufferers should inform the vaccinating doctor about allergies. Only a few people will be advised against vaccination for medical reasons.
With both m-RNA vaccines (BioNTech/Pfizer and Moderna) as well as with the vaccine from AstraZeneca, a second dose is needed after the first vaccination: with BioNTech three weeks and with Moderna and AstraZeneca four weeks after the first vaccination. The full protective effect of these three vaccines is only achieved after the second vaccination, even though a clear protective effect is already visible one week after the first vaccination. The fourth vaccine approved by the EMA from Johnson&Johnson requires only one vaccination and is to be used in Austria in the second quarter of 2021.
Die bisher bekannten Nebenwirkungen (zum Beispiel Schmerzen an der Einstichstelle, Abgeschlagenheit, Kopf- oder Muskelschmerzen) sind gering. Sehr selten kommt es offenbar zu starken allergischen Reaktionen; Allergiker*innen sollten die impfenden Ärzt*innen über Allergien informieren. Zu Astra Zeneca hat das Österreichische Impfgremium folgende Information herausgegeben: Astra Zeneca
The first two vaccines on the European market (from BioNTech/Pfizer and from Moderna) are m-RNA vaccines. The "m" stands for messenger, RNA for ribonucleic acid. Messenger RNA is, so to speak, the "blueprint" for RNA genetic material, i.e. it is not part of the actual genetic material. It is only found in the cell plasma, not in the cell nucleus, and is rapidly degraded. The m-RNA in the vaccines transports information for the genetic material of the covid 19 pathogen SARS-CoV-2 into the "protein factories" of the human cells (ribosomes). There, new virus proteins are then created.
When infected with SARS-CoV-2, all the proteins for new viruses are created in the human ribosomes. In the two m-RNA vaccines, the ribosomes only produce the characteristic "spike" protein of the virus. It is not enough to make new viruses, but it triggers a defence reaction in the body: The immune system forms antibodies and "arms" its defence cells.
When infected with SARS-CoV-2, the human ribosomes produce all the proteins for new viruses. In the two m-RNA vaccines, the ribosomes only produce the characteristic "spike" protein of the virus. It is not enough to make new viruses, but it triggers a defence reaction in the body: The immune system forms antibodies and "arms" its defence cells.
The other two approved vaccines from Astra-Zeneca and Johnson&Johnson are so-called vector vaccines. Here, a modified, harmless adenovirus carries the genetic information for the spike protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus into the cell and thus triggers an immune reaction.
Are more side effects to be expected from vaccination in people with HIV?
So far, there is hardly any data on individual groups of vaccinated people. However, it is not to be expected that people with HIV react differently to the m-RNA vaccines than HIV-negative people.
In principle, people with chronic diseases in particular should be vaccinated against infectious diseases that put additional strain on their health. There is no reason why this should be different for vaccination against Covid-19.
In people with HIV and well-functioning HIV therapy, vaccination against Covid-19 works quite normally.
In people with HIV and well-functioning HIV therapy, vaccination against Covid-19 works normally.
In people with HIV with less than 200 helper cells/µl, however, vaccinations are less effective according to previous experience, i.e. the vaccination success is not as good for them. They should consult their HIV specialist practice.
There are contradictory data on the question of whether HIV infection has a negative effect on the course of covid-19 disease. In people with well-treated HIV infection, there seems to be no difference, or at least not much, compared to HIV-negative people.
However, people with HIV often have additional risk factors, for example diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease or kidney disease. Then - as with HIV-negative people with such risk factors - the risk of a severe course would be increased.
The risk is also likely to be increased with low helper cell counts, for example in undiagnosed and advanced HIV infection, as well as in other people with severely weakened immune systems.
The main purpose of the trials is to prove that the vaccines prevent severe courses of covid 19. To find out whether they also prevent infections, the volunteers would have had to have their throats swabbed weekly.
However, it is assumed that a vaccination not only protects against a severe course of the disease, but also protects the people in contact with the vaccinated person better. However, we will only know exactly when there are more studies on this.
This question can only be answered when a little more time has passed. It is hoped that the protection will last at least one to two years.
Currently, there are no known interactions between vaccination and HIV medication. However, a lower CD4 count can lead to a reduced formation of antibodies that protect against COVID-19. However, vaccination is recommended even with a low CD4 count.
Ja! Die Aids Hilfe Wien sieht sich als Gesundheitsdienstleisterin im Kontext der Wiener Gesundheits- und Sozialeinrichtungen und ist sich der hohen Verantwortung gegenüber ihren Klient*innen und Mitarbeiter*innen im Hinblick auf einen ausreichenden Schutz gegen eine COVID19 Infektion bewusst. Um unseren Schutzpflichten nachzukommen, setzen wir daher eine COVID19 Impfung bzw. die Bereitschaft zur Impfung für alle neu eintretenden Mitarbeiter*innen, das heißt bei einer Neueinstellung, voraus. Bei Bewerbungen ist daher der Impfschutz bzw. die Immunität mittels ärztlichem Attest nachzuweisen bzw. muss die Bereitschaft zur Impfung gegeben sein.